This widespread defamation has absolutely impacted the national perception of trans women as a group.
Etymology[ edit ] In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius literally "kidnapper" to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martialwho complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses".
Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft. Legal aspects[ edit ] Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud.
While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent.
Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience for example, a reader, listener, or teacher.
Plagiarism is also considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is specifically supposed to be original content for example, the plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher. In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong.
In academia and journalism[ edit ] Within academiaplagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes[ citation needed ].
Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong[ citation needed ].
Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internetwhere articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier.
No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists  ; however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism. According to Bela Gipp  academic plagiarism encompasses: Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism.
Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone: Uses words, ideas, or work products Attributable to another identifiable person or source Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary  Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities: Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form.
Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation.
Submitting someone's work as their own. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations. Re-writing someone's work without properly citing sources.
Using quotations, but not citing the source. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited. Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece.
Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas enough. Inaccurately citing the source.
Relying too heavily on other people's work. Fails to bring original thought into the text. Sanctions for student plagiarism[ edit ] In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution[ citation needed ].
Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning[ citation needed ]. The seriousness with which academic institutions address student plagiarism may be tempered by a recognition that students may not fully understand what plagiarism is.
A study showed that students who were new to university study did not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism are.
For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism e.comment: I am a Ph.D. student in public health and am contacting you concerning research on your risk communications principles.
I am responding to your interest in having more research done on your risk communication principles as you mentioned in the guestbook post by Knut Tønsberg..
I also work with a public health agency in Michigan, specializing in pandemic influenza risk communication. The NSA Is Breaking Most Encryption on the Internet. The new Snowden revelations are explosive. Basically, the NSA is able to decrypt most of the Internet.
Field Experiment: Violation of a Social Norm. In this project, we were asked to violate a social norm in a. public setting and make observations on what we saw and how our. audience responded. The social norm that I chose to violate was.
simply that of common courtesy. I decided to go to the mall /5(10). Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets.
Understanding Social Norms - Social norm is the understanding people can influence our behavior in day to day basis. In social norms in society there is implicit rules which, is known as the not spoken but, you learn them when you deviate the rule by breaking the social norms in society such as, values, beliefs, attitudes, morals and behavior.