Sabin Levi When I was 15 I attended an organ concert, in which the last piece in the program was by a composer preciously unknown to me. That piece, simply called Chorale in E major performed by the Swiss organist Karen de Pastel left me breathless. It is a little hard for me to explain how much was I changed after this experience. Did I actually become a musician since?
Rather, my purpose in this article is only to disagree with the ahistorical, anti-Christian claims of the new right and the pagan-oriented among the alt-right, who believe that Christianity produced the errors of modernity and, therefore, that it can serve little purpose for Europeans living in the ruins of the modern West.
Other claims in need of addressing are the revival of the defunct Nietzschean idea that Christianity is a slave ethic, produced by Jews to weaken the Roman Empire through the promotion of meekness as goodness etc.
To analyse the claim that "one finds in Christianity the seeds of the great mutations that gave birth to the secular ideologies of [modernism]" succinctly, let us handle each of the three traits of Christianity which de Benoist and Champetier believe gave birth to modernism: Individualism Sadly, de Benoist and Champetier fall over at the first hurdle.
I highly doubt that either of these gentlemen or most in Franck benoist thesis alt-right would rather revert to such a system, which would reveal hypocrisy in their argument. Regardless, the failure in their understanding is far greater than this; the idea that there is a chasm between the individualism of Christianity and the notable individualism of pre-Christian Europe is a false dichotomy.
The individualism of Christianity, and that which characterises and distinguishes European civilisations from others, has the same source! As I explain in my article, " The Uniqueness of Western Law ," the German scholar Martin Hengel whose material is still the best on the subject of Second Temple Period Judaism detailed how steeped in ancient Greek thought and culture Israel, Judah and the surrounding kingdoms were.
The adoption of all manner of doctrines, from Hades to the Logos, comes primarily from Hellenism; this makes it impossible to separate first-century Judaism from Greek thought. The ancient Greeks were of course an Indo-European people whose worldview was uniquely individualistic, as Ricardo Duchesne describes thoroughly in his book, The Uniqueness of Western Civilization.
This is why, for instance, prominent theologians, such as N. Wright, can look at earlier Hebrew concepts of salvation and observe they are much more collectivist. Furthermore, the data debunk any claims that early Christianity was less European in thought, as the earliest Church writings were well-aware of this connection to Hellenistic thought and celebrated it .
Egalitarianism According to de Benoist and Champetier, progressive egalitarianism "is rooted in the [Christian] idea that redemption is equally available to all mankind, since all are endowed with an individual soul whose absolute value is shared by all humanity. Equity is a principle of law which is distinct from the beliefs of egalitarianism or equity; this principle is derived from the unique Indo-European cultural background and European tradition of perceiving oneself as a rational individual, possessing free will, and only having respect for authorities which recognise this and respect it in turn.
The role of Christianity as a successor to this unique legal tradition should be obvious to anyone who has even a passing familiarity with the concept of natural law.
As I explain in greater detail in my upcoming book, The Uniqueness of Western Law, both the Catholic respect for the natural order of the human world, and the systems of Germanic and Celtic customary law, had similar equitable principles, as they had developed from the same origins; thus, there was little contention as jurists synthesised these with other laws derived from Roman private law.
In short, the genuine European tradition considers humans to have natural rights as per the natural order of human societies. This was inevitable, of course, but not because there is something inherent in Christianity or the Indo-European culture from which natural law arose.
For example, Hobbes, having declared that men are perpetually at war, concluded that a Leviathan state was required to create an artificial order. Compare this with the Medieval concept of the negotium pacis et fides, i.
Progressivism Again, according to de Benoist and Champetier, "Progressivism is born of the idea that history has an absolute beginning and a necessary end, and that it unfolds globally according to a divine plan.
But, this is simply another misinterpretation of European history, willingly or unwillingly.The erroneous argument is neatly summed up in the thesis of a recent, two-part article by Ferdinand Bardamu, titled "Why Europeans Must Reject Christianity".
Sadly, this is a lengthy piece of work, espousing little more than false dichotomies and tired, biased arguments from leftists, such as .
In Franck entered the Paris Conservatory studying piano with Zimmerman and organ with Benoist. After his schooling, Franck chose to settle in Paris.
He was made organist of St. JeanSt. Web Du Bois Dubois dissertation writing service to write an MBA Web Du Bois Dubois dissertation for a PhD thesis graduation. Paris: Benoist Prévost, 69 engraved plates (plates XIII, XXII, XXIII, XXVIII, XXXIV, XXXIX and XL in the earlier state without integral plate numbers).
(The first and last three plates with small tears or holes, just affecting the engraved area in two cases, about six other plates with browning.).
Vendredi 16 mars Abidjan. Carena. Cérémonie de passation de charges entre Michel Plucinski, ancien DG et son successeur Franck Benoist en présence du ministre Alain Lobognon, à la faveur. xii Acknowledgements I am grateful to numerous local and global “peers” who have contributed towards shaping this thesis.
At the outset, I would like to express my appreciation to Professor David Abramson for his advice.