Select a research area from the adjacent list Cloning Information: Online Articles Any discussion about cloning needs to begin with careful definitions. Cloning can occur at the level of DNA, at the level of the single cell, or at the level of the whole organism. Typically, ethical attention is focused upon cloning in the context of the genetic copying of a whole organism.
Our experiences have told us that, with a little work, we humans can clone just about anything we want, from frogs to sheep—and probably even ourselves. So we can clone things. But why would we want to? Below are some of the ways in which cloning might be useful. Cloning in Medicine Cloning for medical purposes has the potential to benefit large numbers of people.
How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn about human disease comes from studying animal models such as mice.
Often, animal models are genetically engineered to carry disease-causing mutations in their genes. Creating these transgenic animals is a time-intensive process that requires trial-and-error and several generations of breeding.
Cloning could help reduce the time needed to make a transgenic animal model, and the result would be a population of genetically identical animals for study.
Cloning to make stem cells Stem cells build, maintain, and repair the body throughout our lives. Because these are processes that stem cells do naturally, they can be manipulated to repair damaged or diseased organs and tissues.
But stem cells transferred from one person to another such as in a bone marrow transplant are seen as foreign, and they usually trigger an immune response. Some researchers are looking at cloning as a way to create stem cells that are genetically identical to an individual.
These cells could then be used for medical purposes, possibly even for growing whole organs. And stem cells cloned from someone with a disease could be grown in culture and studied to help researchers understand the disease and develop treatments.
Inscientists at Oregon Health and Science University were the first to use cloning techniques to successfully create human embryonicstem cells. The donor DNA came from an 8-month-old with a rare genetic disease. Find out more about Stem Cells. In the original feature film, based on the Michael Crichton novel, scientists use DNA preserved for tens of millions of years to clone dinosaurs.
They run into trouble, however, when they realize that the cloned creatures were smarter and fiercer than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs?
A well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct dinosaur, and A closely related species, currently living, that could serve as an egg donor and surrogate mother.
It's extremely unlikely that dinosaur DNA could survive undamaged for such a long time. However, scientists have been working to clone species that became extinct more recently, using DNA from well-preserved tissue samples.
A number of projects are underway to clone extinct species, including the wooly mammoth. Inscientists had their first near-success resurrecting an extinct animal.
Using goats as egg donors and surrogates, they made several clones of a wild mountain goat called the bucardo—but the longest-surviving clone died soon after birth.
Even if the effort eventually succeeds, the only frozen tissue sample comes from a female, so it will only produce female clones. However, scientists speculate they may beable to remove one X chromossome and add a Y chromosome from a related goat species to make a male. Cloning endangered species is much easier, mainly because the surviving animals can donate healthy, living cells.
In fact, several wild species have been cloned already, including two relatives of cattle called the guar and the banteng, mouflon sheep, deer, bison, and coyotes.
However, some experts are skeptical that cloning can help a species recover. One big challenge endangered species face is the loss of genetic diversity, and cloning does nothing to address this problem.
When a species has high genetic diversity, there is a better chance that some individuals would have genetic variations that could help them survive an environmental challenge such as an infectious disease. Cloning also does not address the problems that put the species in danger in the first place, such as habitat destruction and hunting.
But cloning may be one more tool that conservation scientists can add to their toolbox.In Case You Were Sleeping On June 22nd , the world was changed in such a radical way that it will never be the same. A group of Scottish scientists from the Roslin Institute did the impossible and created the world's first genetic clone, a sheep named Dolly.
She was an exact replica of. All three panelists commended the decision of the state advisory committee to deal separately with the issues of human cloning and stem cell research.
Religious Perspectives Two religion panelists, Suzanne Holland and Laurie Zoloth, are co editors of The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics and Public Policy (MIT . "Another important application of cloning technology (through both the genetic modification of animals and the creation of identical copies) lies in the potential to produce therapeutic proteins.
The NBAC heard testimony and read opinions on the multitude of complex issues surrounding human cloning, but in the end, the NBAC based its recommendation for a three to five year moratorium on human cloning in the United States on safety concerns.
The more accurate phrasing is 'cloning-to-produce-children' and 'cloning-for-research' to make a distinction between cloning that results in the creation of an embryo for subsequent destruction and one that is created in order to continue the normal process of human development.
Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning considers the scientific and medical sides of this issue, plus ethical issues that pertain to human-subjects research. Based on experience with reproductive cloning in animals, the report concludes that human reproductive cloning would be dangerous for the woman, fetus, and newborn.