Looking at the Evidence of Effectiveness, a Literature Review Summary Some educators, funding officers and program planners may have had an uneasy belief that peer education or other types of peer involvement may not be helpful in planning, implementing or operating a program designed to change attitudes, norms and behaviors. Advocates for Youth requested a literature review to either refute or substantiate that belief.
What is intermittent fasting? The goal is to create conditions of fasting in the body, but not for extreme lengths of time. Some examples of intermittent fast strategies include 10, 8, or 5 hour eating windows throughout the day, or perhaps eating just two meals each day: The evolutionary premise — the argument that proponents of intermittent fasting make — is that humans evolved to optimize their health under less-than-optimal conditions.
Intermittent fasting, they say, is a natural and perhaps even necessary part of being human. The modern-day scientific correlate appears promising, too: Most people are nowadays aware that a calorie-restricted diet has the ability not just to decrease body weight but also to lengthen a human life.
Emerging research is beginning to show, however, that intermittent Literature review training evaluation is just as effective as calorie restriction in ensuring these health benefits!
Intermittent fastingproponents say, also may benefit the fight against cancer, diabetes, and autoimmunity.
It is wholly understandable that fasting is all the rage these days. Intermittent fasting women is a specific interest of mine because of what I have witnessed both in myself and in working with literally thousands of women in the PfW community.
Many women report to me read more about that in this awesome book that intermittent fasting causes sleeplessness, anxiety, and irregular periods, among many other symptoms hormone imbalance, such as cystic acne.
I have also personally experienced metabolic distress as a result of fasting, which is evidenced by my interest in hypocretin neurons. After my own bad experience with IF, I decided to investigate intermittent fasting.
I looked into both a the fasting literature that paleo fasting advocates refer to, and b the literature that exists out in the metabolic and reproductive research archives. I was struck by what seemed like an egregious sex-based oversight in that MDA post I linked to above.
This startled me because the article MDA cited was for me one of the strongest proponents of sex-specific differences in response to fasting. This is not to say that Mark is not attentive to who should and who should not be fasting. He knows very well and cautions people against the dangers of fasting while stressed.
Still, the mere fact of being more sensitive to fasting simply by being a woman is, I would assert, pretty important for a woman who is contemplating or already practicing IF.
This goes nearly unmentioned in the blogosphere. The animal studies are more equitable, but also a bit less applicable to human studies.
It is well-known in both the research and the nutritional communities that caloric restriction is horrible for female reproductive health.
This is not news.
Institute for Law and Justice Alexandria, Virginia Training Evaluation Model: Evaluating and Improving Criminal Justice Training Final Report September PART TWO: REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH ON INTERVENTIONS Introduction 31 Format for the analysis of the research 32 5 Interactive approaches Using Training to Build Capacity for Development An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Project-Based and WBI Training The World Bank Washington, D.C.
There is an infertility condition — called hypothalamic amenorrhea — that millions of women suffer from due to being overly restrictive. But what of fasting? The few studies that exist point towards no.
It is not definitive, since the literature is so sparse, and it necessarily differs for women who are overweight versus normal weight and who have different genetic makeupsbut when it comes to hormones, women of reproductive age may do well to err on the side of caution with fasting.
What follows first is a brief review of what can be gleaned in sex-specific responses to fasting in animal studies. Afterwards I talk about what has been concluded by the few relevant human studies.
In this study, they do alternate day fasting, which entails free eating on one day and a fast day on the next. The study found that brain states while fasting were different for male and female rats. For male rats the change in hippocampus size, hippocampal gene expression, and ambulatory behavior was the same no matter what kind of restricted diet they were on — but for female rats, the degree of change in brain chemistry and in behavior was directly proportional to degree of calorie intake, demonstrating the unique sensitivity of female rats to the starvation response.
Male rats do not experience as dramatic hippocampal and general brain chemistry change as female rats do, and their behaviors, specifically their cognition and their dirunal and nocturnal activity, do not change. They become hyper-alert, have better memories, and are more energetic during the periods in which they are supposed to be sleep.
Theoretically, according to these researchers, this is an adaptive response to starvation. They get smart, they get energetic, they get active, and they stop sleeping.
This study found that male reproductivity up-regulates in response to metabolic stress. The results were striking. Females and males typically play different roles in survival of the species and would be expected to respond differently to food scarcity or excess.
Heightened cognition and motor activity, combined with reproductive shutdown, in females may maximize the probability of their survival during periods of energy scarcity and may be an evolutionary basis for the vulnerability of women to anorexia nervosa.
They also found this: The weight of the adrenal gland was similar in rats on all diets; however, when normalized to body weight CR and IF diets caused a relative increase in adrenal size, the magnitude of which was greater in females, compared with males.
The testicular weight was unaffected by any of the diets.The presentation of evaluation findings should not just be based on reporting data collected. Your presentation, be it a report or slide presentation needs to reflect on what the data means for the project and analyse how it informs a response to the key evaluation questions.
Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, Vol 14, No 13 Page 2 Randolph, Dissertation Literature Review framework for the self-evaluation of literature reviews.
Using Training to Build Capacity for Development An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Project-Based and WBI Training The World Bank Washington, D.C. Using Training to Build Capacity for Development An Evaluation of the World Bank’s Project-Based and WBI Training The World Bank Washington, D.C.
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Method. An integrative literature review was adopted to meet the objective of the study. This is a wider type of revision that includes both experimental and non-experimental research, allowing for the synthesis of multiple published studies and the development of a .