Second Essay, Sections Summary Nietzsche opens the second essay by examining the significance of our ability to make promises. To hold to a promise requires both a powerful memory--the will that a certain event should not be forgotten--and a confidence about the future and one's ability to hold to the promise in the future. This confidence demands that, on some level, we must make ourselves calculable or predictable, and for a people to be predictable, they must share a common set of laws or customs that govern their behavior.
Note's on Nietzsche's Genealogy A warning. There is much disagreement in Nietzsche scholarship. For example, some philosophers read him as often being ironic; these philosophers might then read The Genealogy of Morals as offering a kind of reductio ad absurdum of some of the claims he makes in that book.
In these notes, I read Nietzsche "straight"--I do not interpret him as being ironic. There are however some themes which unite his work and are common to much of it. Nature is incomplete at least in the sense that it cannot alone provide purposes which are sufficient.
Non-human animals are without worthy purposes, for example.
Thus, from Schopenhauer as Educator: Again, from Schopenhauer as Educator: That is, to be able to assert and endorse your life would be a triumph of a kind. The man who creates ideals and can face the possibility of eternal return is the overman.
Antithesis to the overman is the last man, who is comfortable with animal pleasures alone, and who does not bother to even care about these issues. Christianity is the morality of the slave: Democracy is like Christianity in being antithetical to the task of fostering the overman.
Psychology is a fundamental science, and often our theories are expressions of unconscious motives and beliefs. Philosophical systems are often just expressions of the author's view, for example; and more often yet just expressions of the most pedestrian beliefs of one's time.
However, Nietzsche believes that philosophy has a great and important task: He only denigrates the idea tha philosophy is a rational, disinterested investigation of things, and also he denigrates philosophers who try to emulate scientists with their indifference to values.
The Will to Power is a fundamental drive that can explain much, perhaps all, human endeavors. This is a theme that Nietzsche does not do much to explain; he seems to have meant to work this out more but did not stay healthy long enough to do so.
Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals Here, Nietzsche uses the term "genealogy" in its fundamental sense: He is going to offer a theory of the genesis of Christian morality, which he believes is also democratic morality. His historical analysis is a radical attack on these morals, offering a kind of social and psychological account of why they arose, as a replacement for the Christian story of these ethics being grounded in the will of the Christian god.
Nietzsche has an alternative theory of value, which is only implicit in this book, and arises from his views about the will to power. We will discuss this. Note that Christians, and nearly all if not all theists, tend to implicitly accept what I have called Foundationalism about Purpose.
The character of Ivan in Doestoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov expresses this sentiment clearly when he says that if the Christian God does not exist, then "all is lawful," by which he means that any old purpose will count as well as any other which may, given some understandings of "purpose," be just to deny that there are purposes.First Essay 1.
The English psychologists are perhaps men like Hobbes and Hume; or, since he is mentioned later in the book, Herbert Spencer.
All these philosophers share that they wrote on the origin of morality in terms of historical development. 2. FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE On the Genealogy of Morality. CAMBRIDGE TEXTS IN THE HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT Series editors RaymondGeuss Reader in Philosophy, University of Cambridge In sections 20–2 of the Second Essay, it is only possi-ble to know which meaning Nietzsche had in mind by the surrounding.
The immense task in what I have called the "morality of custom" (cf. Daybreak, p. 7, 13, 16), the essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the morality of custom and the social .
A summary of First Essay, Sections in Friedrich Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals.
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Genealogy of Morals and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Friedrich Nietzsche is one of the most inﬂuential thinkers of the past years and On the Genealogy of Morality () is his most important work on ethics and politics.
A polemical contribution to. This is a characterization that Nietzsche has applied to himself; the book that both informs, and is informed by every other book Nietzsche has written on the subject of revaluation of existing values, On the Genealogy of Morality, is subtitled simply A Polemic.
It is clear that in this context, Nietzsche’s polemic is derived from the extent to which Nietzsche’s argument will invariably conflict with the .