The effects of atm cards on

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The effects of atm cards on

The Emergence of Automated Teller Machine ATM ATM or Cash points, first introduced in by City Bank of New York on a trial basis, allowed financial institutions provide their customers with a convenient way, round the clock, to carry out varying transactions which included withdrawal of funds, made deposits, check account balance, and later on included features to allow customers pay bills, etc.

There was no need for a cashier to be present or for a customer to physically visit the financial institutions premises to carry out such transactions.

ATM technology allows customers carry out the above-mentioned transactions using an ATM card, which could be a debit or a credit card. An ATM machine authenticates the card by reading and verifying the magnetic strip, card number, expiration date, and an already provided or pre-selected PIN number.

Like with most technological advances, there is always a flaw which criminal-minded individuals identify and exploit to perpetuate fraud. Technology is being constantly evolved so that ATM transactions can be an enjoyable experience to its customers, especially if one has to pay for goods or services in cash by 1.

Since then, ATMs appear to have spread their tentacles across Nigeria. The banking industry no doubt has witnessed advancement in technology just like any other sector; the use of the automated teller machine is one of these as it affects banking operations entirely.

With the adoption of Self Service technology by the banks, ATMs have continued to service the populace; they offer convenience to customers and provide banking services well beyond the traditional service period.

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It therefore encourages a cashless society. Thus, eliminating the risk of loss of cash through theft or fire as witnessed in the past, creating a win-win scenario for parties concerned.

Karahanna, et al, At inception, the few banks that had these machines restricted customers to accessing the machines from their banks alone.

This cannot be said today, as technology solutions have been made available to the banks to enable users make withdrawals from ATMs of other banks. Some of the challenges encountered among others are: The most common method of card theft is Card Trapping.

A Lebanese Loop is designed to be entered within the card entry slot of the ATM card reader in such a way as it does not prevent the consumer from entering their card, but it does prevent the ATM card reader from ejecting or returning the card to the consumer.

The perpetrator can subsequently remove the trapped card once the consumer has departed from the ATM with the belief that the ATM has captured or swallowed their card. Another variant of card trapping is known as the Algerian V trap. PIN Compromise PIN compromise methods range from the very technically sophisticated to the relatively easy technique known as shoulder surfing.

Shoulder surfing involves the perpetrator standing close enough to the consumer to observe the numbers entered on the key pad. A more sophisticated method of observation or surveillance involves the use of a miniature camera which can either transmit the image of the PIN being entered or store the recording within the device.

With the increase in the number of mobile phones with video capture capabilities, such phones are adapted to compromise PINs.

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Keyboard overlays are devices which are designed to look very like the genuine ATM key pad and are fixed on top of the genuine key pad.

The Keyboard Overlay will record the numbers entered on the key pad but also permit the genuine keyboard to accept the PIN being entered. Similarly to the use of cameras, the keyboard overlay may transmit the information to a remote receiver or store the information locally.

Card Skimming Card skimming involves making a copy of the information encoded on the magnetic stripe of the card. There are various different types of skimming device designed to be used in different environments, from hand held devices through door access skimmers to miniature card entry slot skimmers.

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Hand held skimming devices are more commonly associated with card skimming in restaurants and other retail establishments. Some ATMs are installed in a controlled environment whereby the consumer is required to swipe a card at the door of the ATM location to gain access.

Skimming devices may be attached to or used as a replacement for a genuine door access device. ATM card entry slot skimmers have various shapes and sizes and also vary in sophistication. One of the most effective ATM skimming devices is known as the Sofia skimmer.

The skills of the perpetrators in modifying the packaging of skimming devices makes them very difficult for the untrained observer to detect.

Transaction Reversal Transaction reversal techniques involve highly skilled manipulation of the ATM during a transaction with the result that the host computer believes that the consumer did not receive their cash and thus re-credits or reverses the transaction.

Other variants of transaction reversal involve either collusion with someone within the ATM network or detailed knowledge of the rules governing transaction processing. After four o,clock in the day one cannot collect any money from ones account again.

This led to carrying cash around in case of emergency, but with introduction Automated Teller Machine one can comfortably stroll to any ATM by 1. A field survey carried out by the researcher among various account owners revealed some interesting patterns.

This report has been structured in three sections: Method of Information Gathering The techniques used for information gathering in this research work are as shown below: They are mostly used where there is a large number of people from whom the analyst requires information.

The questionnaire was distributed among the various users, non users of ATM. This technique is used for collection of data verification of data collected from other sources and also for encouraging the user to participate in the development of the new system.

One of the most important reasons why interviewing is preferred in most cases is that it gives the analyst the opportunity to follow up certain answers. This is the least commonly used technique, this is because it is time consuming.What are Effects of ATM?

SAVE CANCEL. already exists. It stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode.. Or an Automatic Teller Machine - usually called a cash machine in the UK. that get stuck inside an ATM are stored inside specially designed vaults that are supposed to hold stuck or confiscated ATM Cards.

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The effects of atm cards on

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Abstract: Review on ATM, with data on DNA, on the protein encoded, and where the gene is implicated.

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