The Seljuk Turks were originally an Asian horde which, like the Huns of earlier times, had penetrated far into the West. By the eleventh century the Seljuk Turks controlled much of the Levant. With Persia in their control, including Baghdad, the capital of the Moslem world, they presented a terrifying prospect:
Note how the traditions of the peace and truce of God - aimed at bringing about peace in Christendom - ties in directly with the call for a Crusade. Does this amount to the export of violence? Urged by necessity, I, Urban, by the permission of God chief bishop and prelate over the whole world, have come into these parts as an ambassador with a divine admonition to you, the servants of God.
I hoped to find you as faithful and as zealous in the service of God as I had supposed you to be. But if there is in you any deformity or crookedness contrary to God's law, with divine help I will do my best to remove it.
For God has put you as stewards over his family to minister to it.
Happy indeed will you be if he finds you faithful in your stewardship. You are called shepherds; see that you do not act as hirelings.
But be true shepherds, with your crooks always in your hands. Do not go to sleep, but guard on all sides the flock committed to you. For if through your carelessness or negligence a wolf carries away one of your sheep, you will surely lose the reward laid up for you with The three crusades.
And after you have been bitterly scourged with remorse for your faults- you will be fiercely overwhelmed in hell, the abode of death. For according to the gospel you are the salt of the earth [Matt.
But if you fall short in your duty, how, it may be asked, can it be salted? O how great the need of salting! It is indeed necessary for you to correct with the salt of wisdom this foolish people which is so devoted to the pleasures of this -world, lest the Lord, when He may wish to speak to them, find them putrefied by their sins unsalted and stinking.
For if He, shall find worms, that is, sins, In them, because you have been negligent in your duty, He will command them as worthless to be thrown into the abyss of unclean things.
And because you cannot restore to Him His great loss, He will surely condemn you and drive you from His loving presence. But the man who applies this salt should be prudent, provident, modest, learned, peaceable, watchful, pious, just, equitable, and pure.
For how can the ignorant teach others? How can the licentious make others modest? And how can the impure make others pure?
If anyone hates peace, how can he make others peaceable? Or if anyone has soiled his hands with baseness, how can he cleanse the impurities of another?
We read also that if the blind lead the blind, both will fall into the ditch [Matt. But first correct yourselves, in order that, free from blameyou may be able to correct those who are subject to you. If you wish to be the friends of God, gladly do the things which you know will please Him.
You must especially let all matters that pertain to the church be controlled by the law of the church. And be careful that simony does not take root among you, lest both those who buy and those who sell [church offices] be beaten with the scourges of the Lord through narrow streets and driven into the place of destruction and confusion.
Keep the church and the clergy in all its grades entirely free from the secular power. See that the tithes that belong to God are faithfully paid from all the produce of the land; let them not be sold or withheld.
If anyone seizes a bishop let him be treated as an outlaw. If anyone seizes or robs monks, or clergymen, or nuns, or their servants, or pilgrims, or merchants, let him be anathema [that is, cursed].
Let robbers and incendiaries and all their accomplices be expelled from the church and anthematized. If a man who does not give a part of his goods as alms is punished with the damnation of hell, how should he be punished who robs another of his goods? For thus it happened to the rich man in the gospel [Luke It is so bad in some of your provinces, I am told, and you are so weak in the administration of justice, that one can hardly go along the road by day or night without being attacked by robbers; and whether at home or abroad one is in danger of being despoiled either by force or fraud.
Therefore it is necessary to reenact the truce, as it is commonly called, which was proclaimed a long time ago by our holy fathers. I exhort and demand that you, each, try hard to have the truce kept in your diocese.
And if anyone shall be led by his cupidity or arrogance to break this truce, by the authority of God and with the sanction of this council he shall be anathematized.
They all faithfully promised to keep the decrees. Then the pope said that in another part of the world Christianity was suffering from a state of affairs that was worse than the one just mentioned.Steven Runciman's three-volume history of the Crusades (originally published in the early s) is widely recognized as one of the greatest works of history .
Cause of the Crusades The reason and cause of the crusades was a war between Christians and Moslems which centered around the city of Jerusalem and the Holy places of Palestine.
The City of Jerusalem held a Holy significance to the Christian religion. It is now believed that there are trillion pieces of plastic debris in the ocean.
Of that mass, , tons float on the surface, while some four billion plastic . Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River)..
The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan. Crusades were a series of 9 military expeditions which sought to recapture Jerusalem and other places sacred to Christianity from the Muslims.
They were formally launched by Pope Urban II in the late 11th century to help the . The Three Crusades The First Crusade AD The Second Crusade AD The Third Crusade AD AD: Seljuk Turks conquering lands, nearing city of Constantinople.
Byzantines' emperor went and asked pope of the time, Pope Urban II, for a lending hand and advice.