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Its use in facades is also due to its chemically inert properties; it can be cleaned easily and lasts for many years. However, when applied correctly, there is so much more possible with glass! Mechanically, glass has the capacity to withstand high compression forces and also high tension forces if heat- or chemically-threatened.
As knowledge and production methods progress, larger glass units can be produced as well as designed. In the last decades, glass has been used more and more in major structural elements, by applying it as glass fins. It can be bonded to steel to create special composite structures.
So-called hot or cold bent glass is also possible in order to create single or double curved elements. Combining these possibilities of glass one can reach one of the ideal concepts of architects and engineers, almost invisible transparent load-bearing elements in every shape: Structural properties The particular material properties of glass greatly influence how a system is designed and built.
Glass is a brittle material, which means that glass will not plastically deform prior to failure.
Glass will fail once it surpasses its elastic deformation and reaches its maximum yield stress. One small peak stress can lead to the breakage of the total glass pane. Tension stresses are always normative in glass design as glass is much stronger in compression.
Heat treating or chemical strengthening increases the overall tensile strength of glass by introducing pre-stress; compression stresses at the glass surface where fracture starts and tension stresses in the center of the section.
When glass breaks, the breakage pattern reveals the pre-stress stored energy that was present before. The larger the pre-stress, the smaller the glass particles.
Due to the nature of the pre-stress, allowed tension stresses are different in the center of a glass pane than at the edge of a glass pane. Also, allowable stresses are time dependent. For example, allowable stresses in case of snow load are significant lower than in case of wind load.
Glass fin structures Glass fins or beams are the most commonly used structural elements in structural glazing. In horizontal position one can compare it with a steel girder, which supports a roof or a floor. In vertical position one can compare it with a wooden column or aluminium mullion.
Glass fins represent one of the most transparent forms of structures. However, due to production limitations, maximum dimensions of the glass parts were just a couple of meters. Failure of tempered glass after a bending test moment stiff coupling elements between the pieces.
Just after the millennium the possibility to produce larger fins by new tempering ovens initiated the possibility to make glass structures with full glass fins as the major structural beams in the following years.
Current maximum measurements in reach of manufacturers in China and Germany are around 18 by 3. However, these measurements require extreme investments of the manufactures in material, knowledge and time to master production. When all plates break, the supports are designed to prevent the glass from falling and can often remain in place until the area is cleared of occupants.
These failure scenarios have been part of experimental testing at Octatube, as proof for third parties. For example, the breakage of all fully tempered glass plates of a glass fin is shown in Figure 3.
In recent years Octatube has designed, developed and built numerous projects with glass fins, e. All these projects display glass fins as main component for the load bearing structures in roof and facade. Their safety behavior after breakage was reason for research as well.
Execution of the safety philosophy of glass differs per country, but always leads to a safe situation in which progressive collapse and a second load bearing system is taken into account. Stabilizing glass Next to using glass as primary structural elements, glass is often used by Octatube to stabilize other structural members.
In plane, the glass units are very stiff due to their large width to height ratio.
To act as bracing the connection between the glass and steel is very important. Only compression forces are transferred through the connection, which, as mentioned before, is favorable since glass has a great capacity to withstand compression forces.
Municipal Museum in The Hague If a monolithic element is broken, the glass and all that it supports will most likely collapse.monstermanfilm.com, de online winkel voor Verkeer & straten plan speelgoed. Online Speelgoed auto's bestellen met snelle levering. Verkeer & straten plan speelgoed kopen met thuiswinkel waarborg.
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