Clifford refutes the concept as human heretic. Let us begin by reviewing what James describes as criteria for one to believe in God.
The algebra of dual quaternions is used to express screw displacementa common mapping in kinematics. Philosopher[ edit ] William Kingdon Clifford As a philosopher, Clifford's name is chiefly associated with two phrases of his coining, "mind-stuff" and the "tribal self".
The former symbolizes his metaphysical conception, suggested to him by his reading of Spinoza. Briefly put, the conception is that mind is the one ultimate reality; not mind as we know it in the complex forms of conscious feeling and thought, but the simpler elements out of which thought and feeling are built up.
The hypothetical ultimate element of mind, or atom of mind-stuff, precisely corresponds to the hypothetical atom of matter, being the ultimate fact of which the material atom is the phenomenon.
Matter and the sensible universe are the relations between particular organisms, that is, mind organized into consciousnessand the rest of the world. This leads to results which would in a loose and popular sense be called materialist.
But the theory must, as a metaphysical theory, be reckoned on the idealist side. To speak technically, it is an idealist monism. That element of which, as we have seen, even the simplest feeling is a complex, I shall call Mind-stuff.
When molecules are so combined together as to form the film on the under side of a jelly-fish, the elements of mind-stuff which go along with them are so combined as to form the faint beginnings of Sentience.
When the molecules are so combined as to form the brain and nervous system of a vertebrate, the corresponding elements of mind-stuff are so combined as to form some kind of consciousness; that is to say, changes in the complex which take place at the same time get so linked together that the repetition of one implies the repetition of the other.
When matter takes the complex form of a living human brain, the corresponding mind-stuff takes the form of a human consciousness, having intelligence and volition. The other phrase, "tribal self", gives the key to Clifford's ethical view, which explains conscience and the moral law by the development in each individual of a "self", which prescribes the conduct conducive to the welfare of the "tribe.
Animated by an intense love of his conception of truth and devotion to public duty, he waged war on such ecclesiastical systems as seemed to him to favour obscurantismand to put the claims of sect above those of human society.
The alarm was greater, as theology was still unreconciled with Darwinism ; and Clifford was regarded as a dangerous champion of the antispiritual tendencies then imputed to modern science. This paper was famously attacked by pragmatist philosopher William James in his " Will to Believe " lecture.
Often these two works are read and published together as touchstones for the debate over evidentialismfaithand overbelief. Premonition of relativity[ edit ] Though Clifford never constructed a full theory of spacetime and relativitythere are some remarkable observations he made in print that foreshadowed these modern concepts: In his book Elements of Dynamiche introduced "quasi-harmonic motion in a hyperbola".
He wrote an expression for a parametrized unit hyperbolawhich other authors later used as a model for relativistic velocity. Elsewhere he states, The geometry of rotors and motors The book continues with a chapter "On the bending of space", the substance of general relativity.
Clifford also discussed his views in On the Space-Theory of Matter in The boldness of this speculation is surely unexcelled in the history of thought. Up to the present, however, it presents the appearance of an Icarian flight. Years later, after general relativity had been advanced by Albert Einsteinvarious authors noted that Clifford had anticipated Einstein: In Hermann Weyl mentioned Clifford  as one of those who, like Bernhard Riemannanticipated the geometric ideas of relativity.
There on pages and he discusses the prescience of Clifford on relativity: Bolder even than Riemann, Clifford confessed his belief that matter is only a manifestation of curvature in a space-time manifold.
As a rule, those mathematical prophets who never descend to particulars make the top scores. Almost anyone can hit the side of a barn at forty yards with a charge of buckshot. Also inat Stanford University for the International Congress for Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, John Archibald Wheeler introduced his geometrodynamics formulation of general relativity by crediting Clifford as the initiator.
In Cornelius Lanczos summarizes Clifford's premonitions this way: Many of his ingenious hunches were later realized in Einstein's gravitational theory.
Such speculations were automatically premature and could not lead to anything constructive without an intermediate link which demanded the extension of 3-dimensional geometry to the inclusion of time. The theory of curved spaces had to be preceded by the realization that space and time form a single four-dimensional entity.
Riemann, and more specifically Clifford, conjectured that forces and matter might be local irregularities in the curvature of space, and in this they were strikingly prophetic, though for their pains they were dismissed at the time as visionaries.
They conclude "it was Clifford, not Riemann, who anticipated some of the conceptual ideas of General Relativity". To explain the lack of recognition of Clifford's prescience, they point out that he was an expert in metric geometry, and "metric geometry was too challenging to orthodox epistemology to be pursued.Philosophers and their arguments.
STUDY. PLAY, The Ethics of Belief. William Clifford. Truth is Subjective.
Soren Kierkegaard, William James. William Clifford, ethics of belief. argues that is is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.
Apr 21, · This video provides a brief exposition of William James' essay "The Will to Believe". In this essay, James provides a rebuttal to William K. Clifford's "The Ethics of Belief".
Section 7. The Pragmatic Argument: Blaise Pascal, - , Clifford vs James. W.K. Clifford argues against such a wager and the Ethics of Belief. In his response to W.K. Clifford, William James points out that there are two ways of viewing humanity’s duty in terms of opinion and belief.
He points out that we are commanded to know. The Ethics of Religious Belief: Clifford vs. James (monstermanfilm.comophy) submitted 6 years ago by TheEveningStar William Clifford aggressively attacked religious .
The Ethics of Religious Belief: Clifford vs. James (monstermanfilm.comophy) submitted 6 years ago by TheEveningStar William Clifford aggressively attacked religious .
William Clifford and William James. Known under the topic “the ethics of belief,” it discusses the problem of religious epistemology, specifically the status of the rationality of religious beliefs.